An acute infectious disease of the intestinal type is salmonellosis. It is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, which affects the digestive tract. The causative agent is not sensitive to cold weather conditions, environmental factors, persists in nature for up to 3 years, and in food products for up to three weeks.
How salmonellosis is transmitted
The first factor in the transmission of salmonella are animals related to agricultural – cattle, pigs, sheep, waterfowl. These transmission routes of salmonellosis are considered the most dangerous: the disease in those without symptoms, but a person is able to get infected through milk, saliva, urine and feces, caring for them or processing carcasses, breathing dust. There is a risk of salmonella infection by eating raw chicken eggs.
The source of infection is considered to be a patient with salmonella or its carrier without symptoms of the disease. To another adult, the disease can be transmitted by the fecal-oral method, through dirty hands, through contacts when caring for the patient. Most pathogens are resistant to antibiotics. A large percentage of poisoning is due to the ingestion of unprocessed food products – meat, fish, salads, fruits, beer. Intestinal infection is seasonal, spread in the heat.
The incubation period of salmonellosis
From six hours to several days, the incubation period for salmonellosis lasts. With it, symptoms of the disease are manifested. They differ depending on the type of disease. In general, the current is divided into:
- gastrointestinal – the most common, characterized by a rapid manifestation of symptoms, is instantly transmitted;
- typhoid-like – lasts 40 days;
- septic – the rarest form found in the elderly and newborn;
- asymptomatic – the body does not show symptoms of the disease, but it can be transmitted to others;
- carriage – the patient does not show symptoms, but is considered a carrier of salmonella, which are the cause of infection.
Signs of Salmonellosis in an Adult
Any disease is characterized by exposure to bacteria or viruses on the body. Signs of salmonellosis in adults begin to appear at 24 hours and differ in the type of disease. Here are the symptoms of salmonellosis in an adult in forms:
- Gastrointestinal – malaise, dizziness, headache, fever. Pain in the stomach, in the umbilical region, vomiting with food debris. Diarrhea with green feces and mucus that foams. The tongue is covered with a dry white coating, the stomach swells, rumbles. Liver with spleen increase in moderation. Symptoms last for five days, can lead to rehydration and metabolic dysfunction. With a mild form, there is short vomiting, unstable stools that pass after three days. In a complicated form, the patient has fever for five days, vomiting and stool are repeated, the disease resembles dysentery.
- Typhoid-like – fever for a week, intoxication, delirium, hallucinations. A rash is visible on the stomach, the tongue is gray-brown, the skin is pale, the stomach is swollen, and the internal organs are enlarged. Passes through 1.5 months.
- Septic – prolonged fever, profuse sweat. Chills, skin turns yellow. Perhaps the development of purulent processes that can lead a person to death.
The first signs of salmonellosis in adults
When the first symptoms of salmonellosis appear, call a doctor who can provide assistance. Signs include:
- nausea, vomiting – how is salmonellosis manifested in adults;
- abdominal pain, he rumbles, swollen;
- stools are liquid, watery, mucous, if affected
- large intestine – with blood;
- frequent feeling of need for bowel movements;
- weakness, headache;
- low blood pressure, palpitations.
Treatment of salmonellosis in adults at home
When refusing hospitalization due to a mild form of the disease, treatment of salmonellosis in adults at home occurs as follows. It is necessary:
- gastric lavage;
- taking anti-diarrheal medicine Cytotec;
- cleansing enema;
- reception of sorbents;
- rejection of sudden movements, adherence to the diet;
- if the diarrhea is prolonged, dehydration occurs;
- to be treated to normalize microflora – taking probiotics;
- drinking natural decoctions of herbs.
Especially important for the treatment of diet with salmonellosis in adults, which facilitates its course. If the patient is in the clinic, he follows a medical diet No. 4. For home hospitalization after diagnosis, you need to follow the rules and precautions for the prevention of complications:
- eat crushed digestible food fractionally, avoiding overeating;
- it is good to eat bananas, apples, carrots, potatoes;
- drink sour-milk drinks, eat blueberries, cranberries;
- add a little lemon to food;
- low-fat fish and meat, steam cutlets are better to make of them;
- allowed to eat watermelons, white crackers;
- you need to drink three liters of liquid per day – water, green tea, compote, kissel;
- light broths, chicken soups, semolina, rice, buckwheat;
- cereals are boiled in water without oil and salt, mashed potatoes also without milk;
- in the early days only water is drunk, then boiled or baked dishes are included.
The effects of salmonellosis in adults
If the disease manifests itself in a severe form, the consequences of salmonella can be dangerous or simply adverse. Any salmonellosis is dangerous – symptoms and treatment in adults cause the most serious violations. Bacteria disrupt the digestive tract, and the consequences can be a violation of the microflora, kidney failure, deterioration of the heart, chronic diseases. Purulent abscesses, peritonitis are distinguished from severe signs, in 0.3% – fatal outcome.