According to statistics, more than 60% of the US population suffers from various forms of gastritis, a significant part of this figure falls on the chronic form of the disease. As a rule, pathology affects people aged 20-50. In general, gastritis is a complex of pathological processes that occur in the human stomach. If you strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations and follow a diet, gastritis is successfully treated and does not cause concomitant pathologies.
What is gastritis with high acidity
Gastritis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach, accompanied by atrophy of epithelial cells, a violation of the mechanisms of regeneration and the occurrence of fibrosis (proliferation of connective tissue). Distinguish between chronic and acute form of the disease. Chronic is characterized by a change in the mucosa over a long period of time, has a relapsing character.
Superficial gastritis with increased acidity (hyperacid) is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which is accompanied by increased secretion of hydrochloric acid. In most cases, increased acidity develops due to an improper lifestyle (including abuse of smoking and alcohol), an unbalanced diet (eating very spicy, fatty foods), and taking medications for a long period of time. There are three types of gastritis with increased production of hydrochloric acid:
- Type A, in which the body produces antibodies to its own cells of the mucous membrane, a pathology occurs against the background of a genetic predisposition.
- Type B, characterized by a lesion in the area of transition of the duodenum into the stomach, occurs, as a rule, due to a bacteriological infection or due to the intestinal contents entering the stomach.
- Type C, which appears due to poisoning with drugs, food, alcohol, chemical poisons.
This disease develops due to exogenous (external) and endogenous (occurring within the body) processes. Factors contributing to the occurrence of pathology:
- chemical poisoning;
- malnutrition (systematic overeating or starvation);
- bad habits (alcohol, smoking);
- autoimmune disorders (for example, type 1 diabetes mellitus);
- prolonged nervous strain;
- infection of the body with parasites;
- hereditary factor;
- reduced blood oxygen (hypoxemia);
- duodenogastric reflux (penetration of intestinal contents into the stomach);
- body intoxication resulting from internal
- pathological processes;
- chronic infectious diseases;
- metabolic disorder;
- drug poisoning (for example, prolonged use of acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can trigger the development of iatrogenic gastritis);
- exposure to the stomach of pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. bacteria);
The signs that accompany the disease depend on the type and stage of the pathology. The most common symptoms are:
- Dull pain in the epigastric region, in the left hypochondrium, sometimes pain can occur in attacks. In addition, the patient may suffer from hungry night pains arising from a prolonged lack of food in the stomach. With antral gastritis, discomfort is localized in the right hypochondrium.
- The next eloquent sign of hyperacid gastritis is “sour” belching after eating. With low acidity, food is poorly digested in the stomach, therefore, in this case, belching is “rotten”.
- Constant heartburn is a characteristic symptom of gastric pathologies with high acidity.
- Gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract) disorders – as a rule, constipation and bloating due to gas formation due to fermentation processes occurring in the stomach.
- Decreased appetite (due to regular pain) or increased (due to a decrease in acidity after eating).
- In some cases, the patient may suffer from bouts of nausea and vomiting.
If there are complaints about the digestive system, the patient should immediately visit a doctor, since the listed symptoms are characteristic not only for gastritis – they can signal more severe gastrointestinal pathologies. As a rule, the symptomatology in the chronic form does not appear as pronounced as in acute, occurs in the case of:
- food poisoning;
- alcohol and smoking abuse;
- the presence of other provoking factors.
A gastroenterologist is involved in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Symptoms of gastritis are similar to the signs of pathologies such as cholecystitis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, scarlet fever, myocardial infarction, so a specialist needs to differentiate gastritis from these diseases. At the initial visit, the specialist should familiarize himself with the patient’s history, conduct a physical examination, and carefully examine the patient.
After that, the doctor can refer the patient to the remaining diagnostic measures:
- fibrogastroduodenoendoscopy (FGDS) of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum (the main diagnostic procedure for detecting gastritis and determining the acidity of the stomach);
- Ultrasound of the abdomen;
- analysis of gastric juice;
- biopsy of the gastric mucosa;
- acid tests (the use of specialized drugs that can react with hydrochloric acid and stain urine in a certain color);
- blood test for antibodies to bacteria.
Treatment of gastritis with high acidity
The therapy used directly depends on the causes of the disease. The vast majority of hyperacid gastritis occurs due to the pathogenic effect of the bacterium Helicobacter pylory. This microorganism lives in the digestive tract of more than half of the world’s population, but does not manifest its effect in everyone. Bacterial carriers are usually more likely to have peptic ulcer of the duodenum and stomach. In addition, patients with gastrointestinal pathologies are more susceptible to cancer of the stomach than healthy people.
Treatment with high acidity is incompatible with smoking, drinking coffee, alcohol, fried and fatty foods. Therapy for acute gastritis is primarily aimed at relieving symptoms, relieving pain and alleviating the patient’s condition. Then apply a combination of drugs that help reduce acidity. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the type and neglect of the pathology, age and state of the patient’s immunity.
Inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane of the stomach, as a rule, arise due to the negative influence of environmental factors, therefore, the prevention of gastritis is aimed at limiting the patient’s contact with them. Disease prevention includes the following activities:
- proper nutrition;
- eating quality products;
- compliance with the regime;
- rejection of bad habits;
- physical exercise.