When an affliction strikes us, then all problems and joys recede into the background. Especially if this disease is deadly. One of these terrible diagnoses is pancreatic necrosis (pancreatic necrosis), which is recognized as one of the most dangerous diseases of the abdominal organs, since it can affect the digestive tract as a whole. Often the disease occurs in young women.
What is necrosis?
Pancreatic necrosis is a pathological phenomenon, which is characterized by a change and the death of its tissues. It occurs as a result of the development of acute pancreatitis. The function of the pancreas is to produce digestive enzymes that enter the duodenum and allow the body to break down fats, proteins and carbohydrates, generally helping digestion. If the ducts of the gland are affected or impassable, the enzymes begin to affect the pancreas itself, dissolving and digesting it.
Classification of pancreatic necrosis
Gland necrosis can be focal or extensive, characterized as progressive or sluggish. Depending on how the pancreatic disease goes, it is considered hemostatic, edematous, destructive, or functional. Possible hemorrhagic pancreatic necrosis. Acute edematous necrosis of the gland can be treated conservatively if measures are taken in a timely manner.
With necrosis, parenchyma edema occurs, pressure on pancreatocytes increases and movement along the ducts is impaired. If the disease is not stopped, then food enzymes will destroy the gland, the decomposition process will go. This can lead to the fact that pus from the pancreas enters the abdominal cavity, resulting in acute peritonitis, purulent sepsis. This situation threatens the patient’s life and requires immediate surgical intervention.
Pancreatic necrosis is secondary to acute pancreatitis. Depending on where the pancreatic necrosis is manifested, it is called local, when only one anatomical region is affected, diffuse if there are two or more such regions. It differs in the depth of the lesion. Pancreatic necrosis can be superficial, deep, total. Based on how the disease passes and develops, it is recognized as recurrent, progressive, regressive, fulminant or abortive.
A mild disease is diffuse or edematous necrosis of the gland with small foci. To a moderate degree, diffuse or local pancreatic necrosis is already characterized by larger foci. In severe cases, pancreatic necrosis is diffuse or total in nature, has large foci. There is also an extremely severe stage in which pancreatic necrosis is accompanied by various complications that lead to irreversible consequences and, as a result, death. There is a difference in the origin of pancreatic necrosis.
Causes of pancreatic necrosis
Acute pancreatitis is the cause of the disease, which is caused by diseases of the biliary tract, injuries, infections, parasites, congenital malformations, previous surgeries, food poisoning, problems with the Oddi sphincter, abnormalities of the organs located in the abdominal cavity, excessive consumption of alcohol, fatty foods. Often the latter is responsible for the development of necrosis of the gland.
Symptoms of the disease
The main symptom of pancreatic necrosis is, first of all, severe pain under the ribs on the left side. She often girdles, passes around the whole body, giving back to the shoulder blade and shoulder, resulting in a false feeling that this is a heart attack. Signs of pancreatic disease – bluish spots on the sides in the abdominal cavity, upset stool, nausea. The abdominal front wall becomes tense, its palpation causes pain.
Accumulations of fluid can occur in the pericardium and pleural cavity. At the same time, the temperature becomes higher, redness may appear on the skin in the pancreas, or, conversely, it will become paler. All this, as a rule, is accompanied by increased gas formation, bloating, and nausea. The chronic form of pancreatic necrosis has complications such as diarrhea, diabetes, jaundice, liver dystrophy, intestinal and gastric bleeding.
If the presence of discomfort in the abdominal cavity and pancreas begin to bother, if there is a suspicion that this is necrosis of the gland, then you need to contact a therapist. After examining the patient, finding out all the circumstances, he makes a palpation, finds out the presence, nature and location of painful manifestations. If a pathology of the gland is detected, then the patient is referred to an endocrinologist. The therapist, in case of pancreatic necrosis, writes a prescription for drugs that relieve inflammation, recommends nutritional nutrition and enzymes.
After undergoing treatment and new tests, the doctor decides on a further fight against pancreatic necrosis or ascertains the retreat of the disease. The endocrinologist intervenes when the patient has abnormalities in the production of insulin and prescribes a precisely calibrated dose of the artificial analog. An oncologist can also join the treatment if neoplasms or tumors are detected on the gland.
Ultrasound, MRI and CT make it possible to understand the state of the pancreas, to see if there is an abscess, swelling, are there signs of inflammation, are there any deformations, changes in size or neoplasms. Ultrasound will help to understand the echogenicity of the parenchyma and the presence of exudate, to determine the presence of stones and cysts on the gland, to understand the condition of the ducts. Computed and magnetic resonance imaging are similar to ultrasound in that they can demonstrate the state of the pancreas, but they do it with higher accuracy.
Laboratory studies provide information on the processes occurring in the gland, the state of digestive enzymes and hormones. An increase in blood and urine amylase levels will confirm pancreatic necrosis. Blood glucose levels indicate abnormalities in the endocrine system. Only having the data of all examinations that will help check the condition of the gland, the specialist will make a final diagnosis.
Pancreatic necrosis is recognized as one of the most dangerous diseases. Even if the diagnosis was made on time and treatment was started, the likelihood of death is 70 percent. There is an opportunity for recovery. As important factors for him, it is necessary to mention the degree of the disease, how timely a visit to a doctor occurred and treatment of the pancreas began, how extensive necrosis has become, whether there are other diseases, the patient’s age and complications.
Doctors do not promise a miracle – if pancreatic necrosis can be overcome, then the patient receives a disability, and some activities will be banned for him. So, he will be contraindicated in any work where there is no way to eat normally, requiring psycho-emotional stress, physical activity associated with any toxic substances.
If you are lucky and pancreatic necrosis is familiar only to you firsthand, then this is an occasion to think about whether you should be so irresponsible in relation to your health, eat fast food, consume immensely alcoholic beverages. Maybe it’s worthwhile to improve and switch to a healthy lifestyle: wholesome food, exercise, then a diagnosis such as pancreatic necrosis will always bypass you.