The gall bladder is a digestive organ resembling a hollow pear of small size. It is located under the liver, which connects to the bile duct system. The photo below shows its location. The main function of the bile ducts and gall bladder is associated with the accumulation and excretion of bile. Gallbladder disease disrupts its normal functioning.
Bile is a fluid produced in the liver. Its function in the body is the ability to enhance the movement of food through the intestines and improve the absorption of fats. During the day, about two liters of bile are formed in the human liver.
Various disorders in the functioning of the digestive system cause diseases of the gallbladder:
- Dyskinesia. One of the most common diseases of the gallbladder is dyskinesia. Its occurrence is associated with a violation of contractions of the bile ducts and walls of the gallbladder. Dyskinesia manifests itself in the form of periodic pain in the right upper abdomen. The nature of the pain may vary.Dyskinesia is a non-dangerous disease. However, you should not leave it unattended, since it can cause the development of gallstone disease (cholelithiasis).
- Gallstone disease occurs due to a violation of the exchange of bilirubin (a pigment that gives bile a greenish yellow color), bile acids, cholesterol and inflammation in the gallbladder, slowing the separation of bile or stagnation of bile in it.
- Cholecystitis. So called gallbladder inflammation. In some cases, a blockage of the bile duct occurs, which disrupts the outflow of bile and causes inflammation. This condition requires hospitalization and surgical intervention.
- Cholesterosis – the deposition of cholesterol in the walls of the bladder.
- Polyps are benign formations. The disease is asymptomatic. Symptoms occur when the exit of the gallbladder is blocked.
- Cancer: Diseases of the gallbladder can provoke the occurrence of biliary pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas.
Causes of gallbladder disease
- Infections – E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cause inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gallbladder and complications in the form of cholecystitis;
- violation of the balance of the chemical composition of bile (increase in cholesterol, bile acids and minerals) contributes to the formation of stones and the development of gallstone disease;
- violation of the innervation of the gallbladder leads to the development of its dyskinesia;
- the role of hepatitis viruses is not ruled out;
- hereditary changes in the form, size of the organ.
Similar diseases, regardless of the causes and mechanism of their development, are manifested by similar main symptoms:
- patients are concerned about pain in the right side of the abdominal cavity that cannot be relieved by taking medications. The pain can have a different degree of intensity (insignificant in the inflection of the gallbladder, expressed with cholecystitis, stones). The pain syndrome intensifies during the day following the meal, especially fried, oily, smoked. In the case of stones leaving the gallbladder, a sharp pain occurs, called hepatic colic.
- dyspeptic symptoms – nausea, vomiting;
- raspberry tongue;
- decreased appetite;
- weight loss;
- bitter taste in the mouth;
- flatulence, bloating;
- belching with air;
- dry mouth
- upset stool, constipation;
- intense urine from deep yellow to brown. Such staining is associated with the absorption of bile acids into the blood and their subsequent excretion in the urine;
- light feces. A decrease in the amount of bile acids entering the intestines does not stain the stool in a normal brown color;
- itchy skin;
- fever and jaundice may occur.
The appearance of jaundice indicates liver and kidney failure. It can cause the development of cirrhosis of the liver, bleeding, internal fistulas.
The listed basic symptoms may vary in each case of the manifestation of the disease. Some of them may not appear.
The following types of studies are used to diagnose such diseases:
- Blood analysis.
- Examination of the skin, oral cavity.
- Ultrasound of the gallbladder helps to diagnose cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, neoplasms. The procedure may be difficult in case of bloating.
- Cholecystography is used in cases of impossibility of ultrasound examination. Detects the presence of gallstones.
- Chole scintigraphy is used for suspected chronic or acute cholecystitis.
- Computed, magnetic resonance imaging – a study that detects the smallest inclusions (stones, formations).
- Fine needle biopsy is used to detect tumor cells.
- Duodenal sounding is a test in which a small tube is inserted into the duodenum and bile is collected through it for research, which determines the composition of bile, reveals inflammatory elements and atypical cells.
Gallbladder disease in children
In childhood, there is inflammation of the gallbladder and bile ducts, dyskinesia, less commonly – gallstone disease, tumors.
Diseases of the biliary tract are characteristic of children of all ages, but more often they occur at 6-10 years. The disease spreads more to girls. Inflammation of the biliary tract under the age of 4-5 years proceeds with the phenomena of prolonged subfebrile body temperature and moderate general intoxication. The inflammatory process usually affects the entire biliary tract system.
With any nature and type of disease, long-term treatment is required. In the absence of relapse within two years, the child is deregistered by the pediatrician.
Share your own experience in fighting gallbladder disease in the comments at the bottom of the page if you have encountered similar problems.