Gall bladder problems are common today, often stones form in it. The fair sex is more prone to such an ailment. Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) is more often detected in overweight people and older age groups, but children almost do not experience this disease. If symptoms of gallstones appear, then you should consult a doctor, undergo a diagnosis and immediately begin treatment if the presence of the disease is confirmed.
What is gallstone disease
If stones (stones) form in the gallbladder, its ducts, or in the liver, this is gallstone disease. There are two main factors that lead to the disease: stagnation of bile in the bladder and an increase in the concentration of salts due to impaired metabolism (bile precipitates). Stones can form in the bile duct, its ducts, and in the liver. The stones have a different shape, size, composition, as can be seen in the photo. Sometimes gallstone disease causes the appearance of cholecystitis – an inflammatory process of the gallbladder.
The main causative agents of their formation of calculi include:
- improper nutrition (starvation, overeating, eating harmful foods);
- pancreatic disease;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- bearing a child;
- long-term use of hormonal contraceptives.
Gallstone disease is divided into stages of development (taking into account the results of ultrasound). The classification looks like this:
- Initial (prediscal) step. It is characterized by the presence of bile with a thick consistency and the formation of sand in the bladder. A suspension forms in bile. This stage can still be reversed if you choose a competent method of therapy, adhere to a healthy diet.
- For the second stage, the formation of stones is considered normal: a few calculi of small size.
- The third stage of cholelithiasis is a chronic form of calculous cholecystitis. The gallbladder is filled with stones of various sizes, which are able to deform the bubble.
- Complicated cholecystitis is accompanied by the development of a variety of pathologies.
Symptoms of gallstones
Almost always, the appearance of stones in the gallbladder does not have obvious symptoms, clinical signs. This period can last a very long time: from about 3 to 10 years. Symptoms of gallstones in women and men depend on the number of stones, their location and size. Signs of gallbladder disease are as follows:
- severe, acute bouts of pain, colic under the ribs on the right side and next to the liver;
- nausea, sometimes vomiting;
- bloating, constipation or diarrhea, feces lose color;
- increase in body temperature;
- yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes;
- frequent burping of air, a feeling of bitterness in the oral cavity.
Correct timely diagnosis of ICD (urolithiasis) is a necessary course of therapy and a chance to protect yourself from the consequences of a dangerous ailment. There are several ways to detect gallstones:
- biochemical blood examination;
- general blood analysis.
- ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, liver (reveals stones in 94% of cases);
- cholecysto-cholangiography (often prescribed before laparoscopy);
- endoscopic ultrasonography.
What are the dangerous stones in the gall
If you do not pay attention to the symptoms of gallbladder disease, do not get rid of calculi in a timely manner, then serious exacerbations may occur:
- the occurrence of an acute form of inflammation of the walls of the gallbladder;
- clogging of the pathways that remove bile, which threatens the development of infection, chronic cholecystitis;
- rupture of the bile, which can cause an inflammatory process in the peritoneum (peritonitis);
- intestinal obstruction, ingestion of large stones in the intestine;
- risk of developing cancer of the gallbladder.
Treatment without surgery
Many are interested in how to dissolve gallstones in a non-surgical way, without medication. There are several effective ways that help to eradicate the disease in the first stages of development, when stones are small. Among them are a special diet, folk remedies and medicines.
In case of gallstone serious disease, a fractional diet must be observed: five to six times a day. Food allowed on a therapeutic diet has a choleretic effect, nutrition in small portions by the hour promotes the release of bile. Such a diet is also the prevention of the disease. The menu of a person suffering from MKD must necessarily include animal proteins, foods with magnesium. Diet with stones in the gallbladder, like any other therapeutic food, divides food into “possible” / “impossible”. It is allowed to eat:
- lean meat, fish;
- cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal, etc.);
- milk: cottage cheese, cheese, milk (not more than 5% fat);
- vegetables, fruits: cauliflower, carrot, zucchini, pumpkin, watermelon, apples;
- drinks: mineral water without gas, compote, juice, fruit drink.
Products that are not recommended for consumption:
- fatty meat, fish, liver, lard, offal;
- butter (sometimes it is allowed to add very little to porridge);
- smoked meats, pickles, sausages;
- spicy, fried and sour;
- fatty broths;
- radish, cucumbers, onions, garlic, eggplant, asparagus, legumes;
- alcoholic drinks, cocoa, coffee.
Ways to remove gallbladder stones
When the stones in the gall bladder have grown to large sizes, then with such a diagnosis, surgery can not be dispensed with. Modern medicine offers options for removing calculi from the body, which are painless, they give more guarantees that the stones will not form again. Surgical intervention is performed according to certain indications. Today, doctors do classic abdominal surgery, laparoscopy, crushing stones with ultrasound.
The presence of stones is not considered a reason for surgery. The surgeon prescribes it only when there are specific clinical symptoms: biliary colic, aching, dull pain, heaviness under the ribs on the right, frequent belching, bitter taste in the mouth, heartburn. Standard surgery (cholecystectomy) is often performed according to emergency indications. General anesthesia is performed. The patient gall bladder is removed, if necessary, drainage of the ducts. The wound is sutured, drainage is placed on the bed of the bubble.
Recently, stones have often been removed through laparoscopy. Stones are taken out by trocars, special metal conductors inserted into the peritoneum. The abdominal cavity is filled with carbon dioxide, a tube of the apparatus is introduced into the incision, which will transmit the image to the monitor. The doctor draws out stones, and sets braces on the vessels and ducts of the gallbladder. Indications for surgery: calculous cholecystitis.
Ultrasonic crushing stones
Gallstone diseases are sometimes the cause of referral to ultrasonic fragmentation of calculi (lithotripsy). Ultrasound destroys stones, breaking them into small particles (no more than 3 mm). Small pieces go into the duodenum along the bile ducts. This type of operation is suitable for those patients who have revealed up to 4-5 pieces of large cholesterol stones.