Polyps in the intestine – the first symptoms and manifestations

The human body is constantly updated, it often appears neoplasms that do not cause direct harm, but are not natural from the point of view of physiology. Benign forms of growths can elementarily interfere with normal life.

What are intestinal polyps

Polyps are a benign pathology that affects the lumen of the intestine or other hollow organs. They represent a kind of tumor (accumulation of cells) of small sizes, which is attached by a leg or a wide base to the tissues and protrudes into the intestinal cavity. This formation is characteristic of any age, especially in patients who inherit intestinal polyposis.

What causes polyps in the intestines

Polyposis refers to diseases with an undiagnosed etiology (occurrence). This means that modern medicine still cannot determine the cause of the appearance of neoplasms in the intestine. There are three theories that explain the appearance of neoplasms, but none of them is proven. Each of them has a scientific justification, but considers only one of the key factors of polyposis:

  1. Inflammatory theory. Formations are an intermediate stage between a cancerous tumor and a local inflammatory process of an organ, while being a benign formation.
  2. The dysregenerative theory claims that a disease is a violation or too frequent accidental triggering of the process of regeneration of damaged cells, which leads to an increase in growth in this place.
  3. Embryonic theory. He claims that the pathological embryonic development of the mucous membranes due to trauma or inflammation is involved in the appearance of tumors.

A different approach to the root cause does not contradict the fact that the causes of the formation of polyps in the intestine are as follows (with which most experts agree):

  • genetic predisposition (hereditary factor);
  • improper diet with the dominance of animal fats, carbohydrates;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • reflux disease;
  • pathology of the intestine.

Symptoms of polyps in the intestines in adults

The polyp of the rectum, like the polyp of the colon, in most clinical cases are not determined, do not have special symptoms. Treatment is very difficult to start on time. Often, therapy begins with a developed form. Symptoms of polyps in the intestine in the complex can make you think about going to the doctor. With common manifestations of a possible disease, you need to consult a specialist. The signs of the disease are as follows:

  • discomfort in the abdomen with severe pain;
  • problematic, uncomfortable bowel movements;
  • the presence of blood, mucus in the stool;
  • frequent urination;
  • periodic unsystematic loose stools;
  • alternation of constipation, obstruction, diarrhea;
  • abdominal pain, vomiting, itching, burning in the anal canal, the appearance of mucus bands on the stool (typical for polyposis of the colon).

Symptoms of polyps in the intestines in children

The child alone can not determine the presence of the disease on their own, so parents should monitor the health of the kids. The main signs of polyps in the intestines in children are the same as in adult patients. With problematic stools or the appearance of blood masses in the stool of a child, you need to show the doctor. In juvenile patients, there are several types of education:

  1. Youthful polyps. Formed in 3-6 years, most resolve on their own without consequences.
  2. Lymphoid polyposis. The development of the disease occurs from six months to puberty. Primary processes are formed at the age of 1-3 years. This form is subject to mandatory treatment because of the danger of pathologies, bleeding, constant discomfort, problems with bowel movements.
  3. Peitz-Egers syndrome. The disease is mainly hereditary. Formations are localized in the small intestine or in the rectum. Long-term development, a positive prospect does not cancel the mandatory treatment.
  4. Adenomatous polyposis (familial colon polyposis). Mass growth of formations to 3,000 units of unequal volumes, which tend to malign.
  5. Gardner’s syndrome. Multiple polyposis in the localization of neoplasms not only in the intestine, but also in the stomach, the thyroid gland.

Types of polyps in the intestine

Depending on the localization in the body, the modern endoscopic classification of polyps distinguishes the following types:

  1. Juvenile. A children’s form of the disease that affects the mucous tissues of the rectum. It looks like a bunch of grapes with a smooth surface (polyp on the leg). Such formations do not develop into malignant forms.
  2. Hyperplastic. Cone-shaped formations of small size (2-4 mm). Even with a large amount, they appear as a thickening of the intestinal mucosa. Very rarely go into cancer.
  3. Glandular. The most common form of the disease, the second name is adenomatous polyps. The formation of a round shape, with a large increase of more than 2 cm in 50%, malignancy occurs.
  4. Villous – both of the same name and glandular-villous. Such hyperplastic polyps have a carpet or knotted shape, are located on a wide base. They are localized in the rectum and sigmoid colon. In 90% of cases, they switch to oncological form.

Can a polyp grow into cancer

This question is asked by almost every patient who is faced with the identification of polyps. Although education is benign in itself, it tends to degenerate: it all depends on the patient’s age, gender, and localization of the formations. The approximate risk groups with the probability of a cancer outcome for various types of neoplasms were given above.

For different locations, the polyp degeneration into cancer is predicted as follows:

  • Cancer of the polyp of the stomach. It is extremely difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms have signs of peptic ulcer. Stomach adenocarcinoma suggests that only 5-15% of patients live longer than 5 years. Only timely diagnosis and complete removal of the tumor at an early stage gives high chances for a positive result.
  • Neoplasms in the uterus. Their formation comes from excessive growth of uterine tissue. In most cases, they do not carry a danger, but in women after 50 years, the likelihood of the transformation of polyposis into oncology increases sharply.

All other localization of formations are at risk of degeneration into a cancerous tumor. If polyposis is detected, it should be regularly checked by a specialist, adhering to the prescribed rhythm of life, if the removal of formations is impractical. The main thing is to remember that increasing the likelihood of transformation into oncology directly depends on the size and composition of the appendix’s body.

How to identify polyps in the intestines

Diagnosis of intestinal polyps in most cases is carried out through colonoscopy. This method examines even the upper sections of the intestine, including remove them if necessary. Modern methods also make it possible to use the methods of computed tomography or nuclear resonance imaging to build a virtual model of the intestine without directly introducing the probe into the intestine. As classic methods of detection during examination are used:

  • palpation of the rectum;
  • sigmoidoscopy;
  • irrigoscopy with the introduction of contrast (barium solution);
  • biopsy, histological examination.

Diet for polyps in the intestines

To reduce the risk of developing polyps and their proliferation with polyposis, a few simple nutritional rules should be followed:

  1. Eating foods that contain quercetin and curcumin. The first element is a bioflavanoid, which is contained in yellow and red onions, the second is a phytochemical agent that is most present in turmeric. Their intake halves the number and size of formations in six months.
  2. Nutrition with polyps of the rectum should be maximally spared the presence of fats of animal origin.
  3. Normal and sufficient intake of vitamin D. They are rich in fish, egg yolk, liver and products specially enriched with them.
  4. Balanced ratio of magnesium and calcium. The proportion should be 1: 2, but the individual perception of these elements by the body should be taken into account.

Is it necessary to remove the polyp

It is up to the physician to decide whether to remove polyps in the intestines. Little depends on the patient’s desire. In 90%, the choice is simple: the formation is removed or excised to avoid pathology, since only youthful varieties of formations are prone to resorption. Depending on the patient’s condition, the doctor may postpone surgery for an indefinite period and observe the dynamics of the disease or its stagnation.

How to remove a polyp in the intestine

Depending on the localization and the number of formations, one of the following methods is recommended:

  • colotomy – removal of polyps in the intestine through an incision in the intestinal wall;
  • the use of proton pump inhibitors;
  • gastroscopy;
  • with severe malignancy of villous tumors, a radical abdominal operation is performed due to the large volume of the tumor.
local_offerevent_note January 15, 2020

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