Symptoms and treatment of polyps in the rectum

Polyposis of the rectum and colon can occur in both men and women of any age. In proctology, cases of the development of pathology are recorded even in young children. Modern medicine has not yet established the cause of this pathology. Some experts are convinced that polyps in the rectum, the symptoms and treatment of which are individual, are formed as a result of a viral infection, but this hypothesis is not confirmed. Doctors note a pattern: polyposis often develops in patients with chronic colitis or people with low acidity.

What are polyps in the rectum

The polyp has the appearance of a growth of epithelial, connective or glandular tissue, which can be deployed in the uterus, maxillary sinus, and gastrointestinal tract. If the formation was found in the anal canal, this indicates polyposis of the rectum. Pathology is registered in the international classification of diseases under the code ICD 10. Like other similar growths, the anal polyp has all the signs of a benign tumor:

  • there is practically no effect of pathology on well-being;
  • no resemblance to atypical structure;
  • no metastasis.

A long existing growth in the rectum can gradually turn into a malignant tumor (it is called colorectal cancer). Medicine classifies the polyp as a precancerous disease. Rectal polyposis is practically not found on healthy tissues. Pathology is preceded by an inflammatory process caused by enteritis, colitis, ulcers, typhoid fever, etc. Intestinal dyskinesia or constipation becomes a fertile soil for the disease. However, a rectal polyp in a child develops without concomitant diseases.

Types of entities:

  1. Fibrous. It consists of connective tissue, often formed on the hemorrhoid. There are cases when fibrous polyps in the rectum, which the proctologist is responsible for determining the symptoms and treatment, grow to large sizes and are detected during bowel movements when they fall into the anus.
  2. Hyperplastic. It differs in small size and is more often diagnosed in elderly people. As an independent disease, hyperplastic polyp of the rectum is rarely detected. As a rule, it serves as the initial form of papillomas and adena.
  3. Adenomatous. The most common form of polyposis is in the form of a dense and smooth ball of pink color without ulceration. In texture, an adenomatous polyp is similar to the intestinal mucosa.
  4. Villous. It has no legs, unlike an adenomatous polyp. The formation has a broad base, which securely attaches to the tissue of the rectum. The structure of the villous polyp is similar to a sponge, divided into lobules, which bleeds at any touch.


  • Feces with mucus.
  • Periodic bleeding from the anus.
  • In the presence of large polyps, symptoms of intestinal obstruction (cramping, pain) develop.

Polyp Removal Surgery

Timely surgery to remove not only large, but also small formations of the rectum is the main preventive measure to avoid intestinal cancer. This is because the treatment of polyps with drugs is not effective. Formations diagnosed with colonoscopy should be removed surgically and sent for a biopsy. Common surgical treatments for polyposis are:

  • endomicrosurgical excision of polyps;
  • polyectomy (excision by means of a colonoscope or rectoscope);
  • resection of the intestine with growths;
  • transanal excision.

How to remove

Surgical operation is carried out in a transanal way through endoscopic equipment. A flexible apparatus (endoscope) is introduced into the anal passage, equipped with a loop that wraps around, compresses and cuts off the pedicle. By passing a current through the loop of the instrument and thereby heating it, the doctor cauterizes the treated areas of the intestine.

Multiple polyposis requires abdominal surgery, during which part of the intestine is removed. Cut off formations are sent for histology (a study that determines the presence of prerequisites for the development of a malignant tumor). After removal of the intestinal region, the patient will have a more complex treatment and longer recovery than with endoscopic surgery.

Laser removal of neoplasms is carried out in two existing ways: by laser coagulation or excision. The first involves cauterization of growths and is performed under local anesthesia. In the process, the doctor cauterizes the polyps with a tool layer by layer, preventing organ injuries. The second method is to excise the lesions using a laser scalpel, so the operation is performed under general anesthesia.


After surgery, the patient, as a rule, is immediately sent home, and subsequent therapy consists in following a diet and proper patient care. Full recovery of the body takes about 2 weeks, during which it is forbidden to work with large equipment and drive a car. Any load can cause internal bleeding. Returning to the usual diet is allowed a week after the operation. Diet implies:

  • fractional nutrition in compliance with the exact regime;
  • inclusion of lean meat in a blender menu;
  • consumption of soft, liquid cereals;
  • refusal of products containing coarse fiber (including vegetables, fruits).
local_offerevent_note January 17, 2020

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