A dangerous disease, which means inflammation of the fatty tissue located around the rectum. Its prevalence among children is small, more often pathology is diagnosed in adults. Given that inflammation develops intensively, often accompanied by purulent processes, urgent treatment is required. If you seek help in time, you can do with drug therapy, if not, with surgery.
What it is
To understand what inflammation of adipose tissue is, it is necessary to take into account the structural features of the rectum. This organ is the last part of the intestine located in the pelvic cavity. In an adult, the length of the rectum is 15-20 cm. The organ passes into the anus (anus).
The walls of the rectum consist of:
- mucus – this is the inner layer, consists exclusively of cells that produce mucus;
- muscle layer – consists of the muscles that form the sphincters that restrain the stool;
- the outer layer is the serous membrane.
These three layers are internal; on the outside, the rectum is protected by adipose tissue. When the inflammatory process begins in it, this disease is called inflammation of adipose tissue. With fatty tissue inflammation, the infection enters the fiber from the rectum.
Although the outer shell of the organ is affected, other inner layers also suffer from severe inflammation with purulent processes and infection.
There are several types of inflammation of adipose tissue. The main classification is associated with the place of occurrence of ulcers, the disease happens:
- subcutaneous – in the anus;
- submucosal – under the mucous membrane;
- intermuscular – between the muscles;
- ischiorectal – next to the ischium;
- pelvic-rectal – in the pelvic cavity.
From the nature of the course of the disease, it can take two forms:
1)Sharp. The inflammatory process develops intensively, the symptoms are pronounced. There are purulent lesions, which exacerbates the consequences, requires urgent treatment.
2) Chronic. This is a fistula of the rectum that appears if treatment for acute fatty tissue inflammation has not started on time or is completely absent. The hole that appears requires urgent surgical intervention, in severe cases it becomes the cause of death. To prevent exacerbations, maintenance therapy is prescribed.
The main cause of the inflammatory process in the fatty tissue around the rectum is infection.
There are many microorganisms that can provoke this disease, more often they are:
- staphylococci, E. coli, possibly the simultaneous action of several types of microorganisms;
- anaerobic microorganisms are bacteria that can survive without oxygen, are considered one of the most dangerous;
- specific pathogens – are extremely rare, these are infections associated with tuberculosis, syphilis.
How do infections and pathogens enter the rectal membrane? This happens in several possible ways:
- through the duct – it becomes clogged, an abscess forms, penetrating inside;
- through the lymphatic vessels;
- when injuring the intestinal mucosa – due to the ingestion of a foreign body, an inaccurate instrumental examination;
- as a complication of the inflammatory process in other organs, including the prostate gland, female genital organs, and others.
In addition to weakened immunity, predisposing factors for the development of the inflammatory process are alcoholism and other bad habits, frequent infectious diseases, even colds, hemorrhoids and anal fissures.
Symptoms of acute paraproctitis are pronounced, the main ones are:
Severe pain. Most often felt in the area between the anus and genitals. As the inflammatory process increases and the abscess grows, the pain syndrome intensifies.
Fever. It is associated with severe inflammation, intoxication of the body resulting from an infectious lesion. The temperature can reach up to 38-39 degrees.
General condition worsening. It occurs due to elevated temperature, manifests itself in the form of a breakdown, decreased performance, discomfort. General intoxication of the body often leads to severe headaches.
Pain during bowel movements. Due to the inflammatory process in the rectum, a person cannot normally go to the toilet. Severe pain lasts a long time after a bowel movement.
Constipation, urinary retention. They arise reflexively due to the fact that the patient remembers severe pain after past trips to the toilet, so he subconsciously tries to restrain regular urges. Constipation and urinary retention, in turn, can lead to other diseases of the genitourinary system.
Symptoms inflammation of adipose tissue, especially painful sensations, are permanent, which brings discomfort, worsens the quality of life of the patient. This limits physical activity, because even the smallest tension, for example, when lifting something heavy or coughing, instantly affects one’s well-being – an acute attack of pain occurs.
A proctologist is responsible for the diagnosis and selection of suitable therapy for paraproctitis of any form. You can contact this specialist right away. However, not everyone can recognize the disease, some turn to the family doctor, who, after listening to complaints and examination, gives a referral to a proctologist.
The proctologist also begins to work with the patient with a survey, first of all, he needs to find out a detailed description of the symptoms that concern the patient, to assess the intensity of their development. After this, palpation is performed, during which the patient becomes on all fours. Often, when a finger is inserted into the anus, the patient immediately experiences severe pain, so it is sometimes impossible to fully palpate.
A strict diet is prescribed for the entire rehabilitation period (usually at least 2-3 months). The main principles of nutrition are the following rules:
- eat in small portions (on average about 200 g) 4-6 times a day;
- food should be at a warm temperature;
- dishes should be of liquid consistency;
- prohibited foods that can cause constipation;
- fruits are possible, but not hard – bananas, kiwi (pitted);
- boil vegetables or stew;
- limit your intake of salt, sugar;
- drink clean water;
- from drinks green tea, dried fruit compote are also allowed;
- be sure to eat liquid – soups, broths – at least once a day;
- refuse sweets, flour, fried, fatty, smoked meats.
The duration of the diet is determined by the attending physician. If during the rehabilitation period there are problems with the stool, so that a person has to push hard during bowel movements, you may need to tighten the diet.
Acute inflammation of fatty tissue is a serious disease that in most cases requires surgical intervention. After it, drug therapy and diet are prescribed. It is important to consult a doctor in time, recognizing the first symptoms of inflammation, especially since they are manifested clearly.