Today, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are common. The reasons for the occurrence of colitis disease can be different. It can be:
- infections – bacterial dysentery, salmonellosis, amoebiasis;
- parasites – worms, bull tapeworm, etc .;
- heavy metal poisoning – lead, mercury, arsenic;
- some diseases – renal failure;
- spicy fried food.
In addition, there are predisposing factors that lead to disruption of the colon: atherosclerosis, radiation, alcohol, drugs, and food allergies.
Gastrointestinal diseases (cholecystitis, hepatitis, etc.) cause secondary (symptomatic) colitis.
According to the type of origin, they distinguish:
- ulcerative (etiology is not clear, possibly genetic disorders);
- infectious – causes pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic microflora (dysentery, streptococcus, staphylococcus);
- ischemic – the abdominal aorta is affected (atherosclerosis);
- toxic – poisoning with poisonous or medicinal substances;
- radiation – radiation sickness.
Basic foods you can eat
An important component of the treatment of colitis is diet. In the diet, sparing protein nutrition and limiting fatty foods are necessary. It is also necessary to reduce the daily amount of table salt to 8 grams. It is recommended to cook steamed, use boiled or baked dishes. Serving small, eat more often – every 3 hours.
For colitis with diarrhea, the diet should consist of dry white bread and biscuit biscuits. The first dishes are mashed, on a broth made of low-fat meat (from turkey, rabbit, chicken or veal). For lunch, you can serve low-fat fish: hake, cod, pike perch. Cooked liver pate.
Porridge – mashed, except for wheat. From vegetables – various mashed potatoes. Soft-boiled omelet or egg (quail). Cottage cheese can only be fresh, which is prepared independently and in small quantities. Sweets – marshmallows and marmalade from natural products without dyes. Drinks – stewed fruits and jelly from blueberries and black currants, a rosehip broth. Limit butter and completely discard spices.
Fruits – peaches, pears, baked apples. Apple, pear can be eaten raw, but previously cleaned (peel irritates the mucous membrane) and remove the seed box. It is not recommended to eat berries containing small seeds (raspberries, blackberries), tomatoes. Limit candy consumption. Acute phase – astringent drinks are allowed (black tea, natural cocoa, coffee). Concentrated juice causes intestinal irritation.
Diet for acute intestinal colitis begins with the discharge of the body and in the first stage involves only drinking. Then, food is gradually introduced, which does not irritate the intestinal mucosa – mashed dishes, steamed and baked, but without a crust. Food fractional, in small portions.
Diet and clinical nutrition for chronic colitis
With spastic (mild exacerbation) – the diet restores the secretory and motor function of the intestine, reduces fermentation. It is necessary to reduce the number of spicy dishes, milk, spices and snacks.
In case of diarrhea, it is necessary to reduce fermentation processes, reduce calorie content to 2 thousand kcal. Patients with ulcerative colitis are on a diet from 1 month to several. The stage of remission involves the use of boiled, steam or baked dishes. It is allowed to eat soups, drinks containing sugar. Products that cause exacerbations are individual for each person. Add the new product carefully. The diet for each patient is selected by the doctor.
In case of constipation, it is necessary to increase the volume of vegetable oils, dairy products, vegetables, rye bread, dried fruits.
Stages of the diet for colitis
Correction of nutrition is carried out as follows:
- The first day – a cleansing enema and abstinence from eating. Drink six or more glasses of water or weak tea (1.5 l).
- The second – we add the peeled pureed apple of sweet grades.
- The third – liquid porridge (semolina, rice, oatmeal) and a small amount of butter.
- Fourth – boiled vegetables, mashed soups without onions and bay leaves.
- Fifth – mashed meat.
Sample menu for the day
The first breakfast is a fish steak, mashed potatoes or porridge mashed without milk, sweet tea, marshmallows or marmalade.
The second breakfast is cottage cheese or cottage cheese souffle, cooked at home (without salt).
Lunch – mashed vegetable soup, steamed chicken, broth of wild rose.
Snack – wheat crackers, cocoa without milk.
Dinner – soft-boiled egg or steamed omelet, buckwheat, raw apple or pear jelly.
The second dinner – biscuits, blueberry jelly.
The menu is selected individually for each patient by a qualified specialist.