Inversion of intestines in children is a rare pathology that causes intestinal obstruction. The child does not have chronic diseases characteristic of an adult organism. Therefore, the causes of the disease differ from an adult person, especially older years.
The essence of pathology
In cases of inversion, intestinal loops twist around their axis or mesenteric. Food transportation is disrupted even when the baby deviates the course of the intestinal loop 90 degrees from its normal direction. A larger angle causes compression of the arterial vessels and nerve branches passing between the mesentery sheets. Inversion can occur in several areas or in one place.
As a result, a section of the intestine ceases to receive food, the wall is necrotic. Following necrosis, vascular permeability increases, effusion into the abdominal cavity begins. The wall of the intestine is torn, the contents exit into the abdominal cavity. This means that fecal peritonitis develops. There is a mortal danger for the baby. The only way to save a child is an emergency operation.
Why does it occur in infants?
According to the observation of pediatric surgeons, the most common cause of bowel obstruction is congenital malformations. They more relate to the small intestine. They are determined in a newborn or under the age of one year.
With a disturbed intrauterine formation of the fetus, anatomical abnormalities are possible:
excessively long mesentery (the most common cause of small intestine inversion);
- violation of the size of the initial and final sections of the intestine;
- internal hernia;
- the formation of a cyst or tumor on the mesentery;
- functional insufficiency of the system of sphincters and valves of the gastrointestinal tract;
- connection of intestinal loops with a common mesentery.
The development of anomalies is associated:
- with complicated pregnancy;
- forced treatment of the expectant mother with antibacterial drugs;
- hereditary disorders.
What matters is the lack of readiness of the underdeveloped digestive system to receive a new nutrient. A reaction occurs in the form of impaired peristalsis: instead of alternating contractions of circular and longitudinal fibers, pronounced spasms are formed, a backward wave. Inversion leads to constipation in the baby, stagnation of feces.
Pathological conditions that contribute to inversion in a child
Under the age of 6 years, a common cause is the formation of a helminthic coil in the intestine to complete obstruction. Other reasons include:
- dehydration of the body with a lack of drinking, in the heat, in cases of severe intoxication;
- trauma to the abdomen;
- functional or pathological spasm and paresis of the intestine;
- adhesions after surgery or untreated enterocolitis;
- squeezing the intestinal loops with a tumor formation, a cyst;
- Hirschsprung’s disease – a rare congenital disease, is determined by the absence of nerve endings in the wall of the large intestine, peristalsis is impossible in these areas, constipation is formed; but the overlying intestine is actively contracting, this creates the conditions for inversion of the sigmoid colon in newborns;
- megacolon – an anomaly of a congenital nature, manifests itself in a significant increase in the large intestine and underdevelopment of the nerve endings system, manifests itself from persistent constipation from the first month of life.
Symptoms of intestinal torsion in children
Clinically, the inversion is manifested by mechanical obstruction at the torsion site. Attentive parents are able to notice the initial symptoms. The pain syndrome occurs suddenly, the child screams. Older children describe the cramping nature of the pain. Perhaps the development of pain shock.
Repeated excruciating vomiting with an unpleasant odor. With small bowel obstruction, first eaten food, then bowel movements. Vomiting does not bring relief, more pronounced when the small intestine is twisted. Rare gag reflex – indicates a lesion in the large intestine.
Asymmetric bloating due to over-inflation of the adducting gut and collapse of the abduction, muscle tension of the abdominal wall. In the initial period, the discharge of feces, then a complete delay in stool and gas. When setting an enema, if the inversion occurs in the small intestine, feces depart from the lower sections, blood inclusion is possible.
Temperature rises to high numbers with spasmodic decline. Kids often hiccup for three days, even after surgery. In a newborn baby, when turning, they pay attention to the cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, the desire to pull the knees to the body. In a subacute course, seizures are accompanied by interruptions and improvement. At the height of the disease, the baby becomes weak, lethargic, restless. These are signs of increased intoxication.
After a successful conservative straightening of the inversion, the danger of relapse remains. Parents are informed about the prognosis and are advised to organize a diet for the baby. Feeding should be done 6 times a day. All dishes should be mashed, easy to digest.
Liquid porridge from oatmeal, rice, buckwheat, jelly, mucous soups are suitable. You can add milk to them, but not fatty. Breastfeeding is best continued with breastfeeding. Do not allow dishes from raw vegetables, juices, flour products.
What to do when the baby is growing?
As they grow older, children’s anatomical anomalies become not so dangerous or completely eliminated. The viability of intestinal sphincters is improving. The size of the intestine becomes proportional. The body adapts enough to life with its own characteristics.
But the threat can arise with the appearance of chronic diseases in the teenage period. Therefore, in raising a child, attention should be paid to proper nutrition, the rejection of any alcohol, soda, fast food. The disease does not spare either kids or the elderly. Seeking medical help gives a chance not only to maintain health, but also to survive.