Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is one of the most common types of cancer in this localization. It accounts for up to 95% of all malignant neoplasms of the stomach.
The disease is insidious in that in the initial stages it does not manifest itself in any way, then pain, nausea, loss of appetite occur, against the background of these symptoms, weakness and weight loss increase.
The only radical treatment for adenocarcinoma today is surgery. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are prescribed as additional treatment or when surgery is impossible.
Types of gastric adenocarcinoma
According to the modern classification, the following types of adenocarcinomas affecting the stomach are distinguished:
- Papillary – visually resembles a polyp.
- Tubular. It grows from cells of cubic or columnar epithelium.
- Mucinous. It grows from muco-producing cells.
According to the degree of differentiation, the following forms are distinguished:
Highly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. Tumor cells have a high level of differentiation and “resemble” healthy tissue. It is characterized by slow growth and, with timely diagnosis, is well curable. The main problem is that at the very beginning this tumor is difficult to detect, even with endoscopic examination, and its detection at later stages does not allow achieving the desired result.
Moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. The cells of this tumor are difficult to identify with the tissue from which it grows. It is characterized by moderate malignancy and growth rate.
Poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. The cells of a given tumor cannot be identified with a specific tissue. It is the most malignant type of stomach cancer. It is characterized by rapid growth and metastasis.
Loss of appetite. Dyspepsia. Bloating, nausea, belching, feeling of heaviness. If the tumor is large, it can block the lumen of the stomach, which causes vomiting when eating, but this happens already in the last stages. Weakness and apathy. Pain. As a rule, it does not appear immediately, but mainly at common stages. At this time, it is permanent and does not depend on food intake. It occurs for no apparent reason and is often worse after eating. In the last stages, it is so strong that it is not stopped by the usual analgesics. As we can see, these symptoms are non-specific, and a person can try to stop them for a long time on their own.
Stages of adenocarcinoma
Stage 0 or cancer in situ. Malignant cells do not spread to the epithelial layer.
Stage 1. The tumor invades the epithelium and spreads to other layers of the stomach wall, but does not go beyond it.
Stage 2. The tumor grows in size and metastases to regional lymph nodes.
Stage 3. Adenocarcinoma invades adjacent organs (pancreas, liver) and / or metastases to several groups of lymph nodes.
In the fourth stage, adenocarcinoma metastases to distant organs and lymph nodes.
Prognosis in case of diagnosis
The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on the stage of the disease. The earlier treatment is started, the more effective it will be.
In the first stage, the five-year survival rate reaches 80%. Moreover, the chances of a full recovery are high. Unfortunately, at this stage, stomach cancer is detected very rarely, usually by chance.
In the second stage, the five-year survival rate approaches 55%. Half of these people have a chance of being completely cured. According to the literature, less than 10% of gastric malignant tumors are detected at the second stage.
In the third stage, the five-year survival rate is less than 40%.
With the fourth, it does not exceed 5%. Unfortunately, up to 75% of adenocarcinomas are detected at the fourth stage.
Prevention of stomach cancer is aimed at preventing or reducing exposure to risk factors leading to the development of this disease:
- Normalization of nutrition.
- Eating a sufficient amount of dietary fiber (vegetables, fruits, cereals), limiting the use of salt, spices, marinades and smoked meats.
- Quitting smoking and alcohol abuse.
- Treatment of infections and precancerous diseases – chronic gastritis, stomach polyps.
- Adequate level of physical activity.