Children’s bacteriosis has its own characteristics. The composition of the intestinal microflora is quite individual and is formed in the first days of a child’s life.
Breastfeeding is a major factor in the formation of normal microflora, since breast milk contains a number of prebiotic substances that contribute to the colonization of the intestine by certain types of microorganisms in the right quantities.
Even a minor distress in the first days of a child’s life, especially the pathological states of the gastrointestinal tract, can cause severe, difficult to repair, later disturbances in the biological balance of the intestines. Irrational antibiotic therapy during this period can cause significant damage to the intestinal microflora. The main causes of intestinal dysbiosis in children are later lactation, poor nutrition of the child, especially in the first months of life, functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, especially associated with malabsorption syndrome – lactase deficiency, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, etc. ., aptibio-tikoterapiya, especially in the first days of life, and especially the immune system.
The first months and the first year of a child’s life are the most vulnerable from the point of view of the development of any intestinal dysbiosis, including the antibiotic-associated. This danger is explained by the fact that at this time the primary formation of intestinal microflora occurs, and the child’s immunity is still very poorly developed.
For the development of intestinal microflora, breastfeeding is of great importance, both due to immunological factors present in human milk, and due to the presence of pre-biotics in milk.
Prebiotics are partially or completely non-digestible food components that selectively stimulate the growth and / or vital activity of one or more groups of microorganisms that live in the colon, ensuring the normal composition of the intestinal microflora. Prebiotics of breast milk are lactose and oligosaccharides. The latter, until recently, were absent in formulas for artificial feeding, however, at present, various combinations of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides are being actively introduced into them. Therefore, to ensure the normal development of intestinal microflora, natural feeding is highly desirable, and if it is impossible, it is recommended to use mixtures containing prebiotics.
So, a variety of external factors can disrupt the development of intestinal microflora in a newborn, and first of all – the use of antibiotics. However, antibiotic therapy is fraught with dysbiosis not only for infants. In children of the first year of life, the use of antibiotics can disrupt the formation of normal microflora, and in older children and even in adults, it can seriously disrupt the already formed intestinal microflora.
Sometimes the use of various antibacterial drugs is a necessary measure. These are, for example, amoxicillin, macrolides – clarigromycin, roxy-thromycin, azithromycin; also metronidazole, furazolidone, bismuth subcitrate. Some modern drugs that reduce the production of gastric juice, are also able, although indirectly, to reduce the resistance of the natural intestinal microflora.
In the treatment of diseases of the upper digestive tract, it is necessary to use biological products, in particular, bifidum-containing. This reduces the chance of pathogenic changes.
Intestinal dysbiosis is always a secondary pathology. Its root cause is a change in the internal environment of the intestine, a disturbance of the digestive processes and a damaging effect on the intestinal wall. Elimination of intestinal dysbiosis is necessary both for the successful treatment of the underlying disease, and for the elimination of the painful symptoms of the actual dysbacteriosis.
The term “intestinal dysbiosis” refers to the appearance in the small intestine of a significant number of microbes, as well as changes in the microbial composition of the colon. In the colon, the total number of microorganisms and their properties change, and aggressiveness increases. The extreme degree of intestinal dysbiosis is the presence of bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract in the blood (bacteremia) or even the development of sepsis (blood infection).
The symptoms of dysbacteriosis felt by a person largely depend on the part of the intestine where pathological changes in the microflora occur. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish between dysbacteriosis of the small and large intestines.
Dysbacteriosis of the small intestine is otherwise called the syndrome of increased bacterial contamination (i.e., increased bacterial growth) of the small intestine. The microflora of the small intestine may change under the influence of various adverse effects that weaken the human body as a whole. These are extreme natural conditions, pollution of the nature with industrial wastes, various chemicals, infectious diseases, diseases of the digestive organs, malnutrition, radiation, etc.
Also, the development of dysbacteriosis of the small intestine often leads to the use of antibiotics and sulfonamides, immunosuppressants, steroid hormones, and radiotherapy. Contribute to it and surgery. An undesirable effect of antibacterial drugs is that they significantly inhibit not only the pathogenic microbial flora, but also the growth of normal microflora in the small intestine. As a result, microbes that have fallen from the outside, or endogenous drug-resistant species, such as staphylococcus, Proteus, yeast fungi, enterococci, and pyo-purulent bacillus, multiply.
Usually, the disturbed ecology of the small intestine is gradually restored on its own and does not require treatment. There is no self-healing of the intestinal ecology only in debilitated patients, especially in those who suffer from impaired immunity.
When excessive production of organic acids as a result of microbial hydrolysis of food components is expressed in the following symptoms: abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, which stops after 24 hours of fasting, loss of body weight, lack of vitamins in the body, anemia.
Premature bacterial activity and excessive secretion of bile acids, as well as fatty acid oxidation in the colon, are accompanied by diarrhea, which does not stop after daily fasting, weight loss, only with small bowel disorders, the development of inflammatory changes in the intestinal mucosa.
Some types of motor disorders of any of the intestinal sections may be accompanied by bitterness in the mouth, air eructations, a feeling of rapid satiety, heaviness and pain in the stomach, nausea and occasional vomiting bringing relief.
The presence of several of these factors at once indicates motor disorder of the intestine.
Symptoms of a motor disorder of a different nature are painless diarrhea or constipation with the presence of bean-shaped feces and abdominal pain.
Chronic pancreatitis, conditions after removal of the gallbladder, disaccharidase deficiency, condition after surgical treatment of a peptic ulcer, diverticular disease, chronic parenchymal diseases of the liver of various genes, helminthic invasions, in particular lambliasis, and also medicinal induced digestive disorders, in particular malabsorption.
When diagnosing excessive microbial growth in the small intestine, a physician can detect various signs of total deviation. For example, functional disorders of the duodenal and small intestine: duodenostasis, duodenal hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome, hyper-or hypomotor dyskinesia of the small intestine, idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, etc .; inflammatory processes of the mucous membrane caused by microbial contamination of the small intestine and deconjugation of bile acids – duodenitis, enteritis. Excessive growth of microorganisms in the small intestine may manifest itself in different ways. Its manifestations may be completely absent, may lead to chronic diarrhea, and in some – to severe diarrhea. Also, such a violation may be the cause of impaired absorption.